Indications And Usage

DORAL is indicated for the treatment of insomnia characterized by difficulty in falling asleep, frequent nocturnal awakenings, and/or early morning awakenings.

The effectiveness of DORAL has been established in placebo-controlled clinical studies of 5 nights duration in acute and chronic insomnia. The sustained effectiveness of DORAL has been established in chronic insomnia in a sleep lab (polysomnographic) study of 28 nights duration. Because insomnia is often transient and intermittent, the prolonged administration of DORAL Tablets is generally not necessary or recommended. Since insomnia may be a symptom of several other disorders, the possibility that the complaint may be related to a condition for which there is a more specific treatment should be considered.


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WARNING: RISKS FROM CONCOMITANT USE WITH OPIOIDS
Concomitant use of benzodiazepines and opioids may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1), Drug Interactions (7)]. Reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required. Follow patients for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

DORAL is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to DORAL or other benzodiazepines. Rare cases of angioedema involving the tongue, glottis or larynx have been reported in patients after taking the first or subsequent doses of DORAL. Some patients have had additional symptoms such as dyspnea, throat closing, or nausea and vomiting that suggest anaphylaxis. Patients who develop such reactions should be treated in an emergency department and should not be rechallenged with DORAL.

DORAL is contraindicated in patients with established or suspected sleep apnea, or with pulmonary insufficiency.

 

WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

CNS-Depressant Effects and Daytime Impairment: Doral can produce CNS depressant effects, including daytime impairment. Patients should be cautioned against driving and other activities requiring complete mental alertness. Alcohol generally should not be used during treatment with DORAL. Additive effects occur with concomitant use of other CNS depressants. There is an increased risk of next-day psychomotor impairment if higher than the recommended dose is taken, if co-administered with other CNS depressants, or if taken with less than a full night of sleep remaining (7-8 hours). The use of Doral and concomitant CNS depressants may require downward dose adjustment and the concomitant use of Doral with other sleep-hypnotics is not recommended.

Because DORAL can cause drowsiness and a decreased level of consciousness, patients particularly the elderly, are at higher risk of falls.

Need to Evaluate for Co-morbid Diagnoses: If insomnia worsens or fails to remit after 7 to 10 days of treatment, this might be indication of an underlying illness that should be evaluated.

Abnormal Thinking and Behavior Changes: Abnormal thinking, behavior changes, and complex behaviors such as “sleep driving” (i.e., driving while not fully awake, with amnesia for the event) and other complex behaviors (e.g., preparing and eating food, making phone calls, or having sex) have been reported in patients who are not fully awake after taking a sedative-hypnotic. As with sleep-driving, patients usually do not remember these events. Some of these changes include decreased inhibition (e.g., aggressiveness and extroversion that seem out of character), bizarre behavior, and depersonalization. Visual and auditory hallucinations have also been reported. Doral should be discontinued if these symptoms occur.

Worsening of Depression: Benzodiazepines may worsen depression and consequently, appropriate precautions (e.g., increased monitoring for suicidal ideation, limiting prescription size) should be considered.

Benzodiazepine Withdrawal Syndrome: A withdrawal syndrome similar to that from alcohol (e.g., convulsions, tremor, abdominal and muscle cramps, vomiting, and sweating) can occur following abrupt discontinuation of DORAL. Avoid abrupt discontinuation in at-risk patients of benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, particularly patients taking higher than recommended dose over an extended time, and the dose gradually tapered. Prescribers should monitor patients for tolerance, abuse, and dependence.

 

ADVERSE REACTIONS

The most common adverse reactions (>1%) observed with DORAL were drowsiness, headache, fatigue, dizziness, dry mouth, and dyspepsia. Doral is classified as a Schedule IV controlled substance and patients treated with Doral should be monitored for tolerance, abuse, and dependence. For a full list of warnings and precautions, please refer to the full prescribing information.